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Eleventh Circuit Holds That Alabama Ban on Transgender Procedures on Minors Can Go in Effect



From today’s decision in Eknes-Tucker v. Marshall, by Judges Barbara Lagoa, joined by Judge Andrew Brasher and District Judge J.P. Boulee (N.D. Ga.):

[T]he Supreme Court has instructed courts addressing substantive due process claims to “engage[] in a careful analysis of the history of the right at issue” and be “‘reluctant’ to recognize rights that are not mentioned in the Constitution.” … [T]he district court determined that the “right to treat [one’s] children with transitioning medications subject to medically accepted standards” is one of the substantive rights guaranteed by the Due Process Clause and that, therefore, section 4(a)(1)–(3) is subject to strict scrutiny. But the use of these medications in general—let alone for children—almost certainly is not “deeply rooted” in our nation’s history and tradition….

Rather than perform any historical inquiry specifically tied to the particular alleged right at issue, the order on appeal instead surmises that the “right to treat [one’s] children with transitioning medications subject to medically accepted standards” falls under the broader, recognized fundamental right to “make decisions concerning the care, custody, and control of [one’s] children.” However, there is no binding authority that indicates that the general right to “make decisions concerning the care, custody, and control of [one’s] children” includes the right to give one’s children puberty blockers and cross-sex hormone treatment.

The fundamental right to “make decisions concerning the care, custody, and control of [one’s] children,” as it is recognized today, traces back in large part to Meyer v. Nebraska (1923). There, the Supreme Court held that a Nebraska law restricting the teaching of foreign languages violated the Due Process Clause. In doing so, the Court recognized that the “liberty” guaranteed by the Due Process Clause includes the right “to engage in any of the common occupations of life, to acquire useful knowledge, to marry, establish a home and bring up children, … and generally to enjoy those privileges long recognized at common law as essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness of free men.”

The Supreme Court elaborated on the fundamental liberty of parents two years later in Pierce v. Society of the Sisters (1925). That case addressed Oregon’s Compulsory Education Act of 1922, which mandated that parents send their school-aged children to public school (as opposed to private school). Citing its decision in Meyer, the Court concluded that the Oregon law violated the Due Process Clause on the basis that it “unreasonably interferes with the liberty of parents and guardians to direct the upbringing and education of children under their control.”

Meyer and Pierce ushered in a line of Supreme Court decisions that recognized, and further defined the contours of, parents’ liberty interest to control the upbringing of their children. The majority of those cases, however, pertain to issues of education, religion, or custody. The Supreme Court’s most extensive discussion of parents’ control over the medical treatment received by their children came in Parham v. J. R. (1979).

In Parham, a group of minors brought a Due Process challenge to Georgia’s procedures for committing children to mental hospitals. At the time, Georgia law provided for the voluntary admission of children upon application by a parent or guardian. Thus, the question at issue was whether the minors had a procedural due process right to greater procedural safeguards, e.g., a judicial hearing, before their parents could commit them…. Parham was concerned about the procedures a state must afford a child prior to institutionalization when the parent believes such treatment—which is not only lawful but provided by the state itself—is necessary. Notably, Parham does not at all suggest that parents have a fundamental right to direct a particular medical treatment for their child that is prohibited by state law. Parham therefore offers no support for the Parent Plaintiffs’ substantive due process claim….

[As to the Equal Protection Clause], a government policy that distinguishes on the basis of sex is permissible … “only if it satisfies intermediate scrutiny.” … In this case, the district court first held that section 4(a)(1)–(3) of the Act classifies on the basis of gender nonconformity and therefore classifies on the basis of sex. In determining that section 4(a)(1)–(3) classifies on the basis of gender nonconformity, the district court reasoned that section 4(a)(1)–(3) “prohibits transgender minors—and only transgender minors—from taking transitioning medications due to their gender nonconformity.” …

[W]e reject the view that section 4(a)(1)–(3) amounts to a sex-based classification subject to intermediate scrutiny. As mentioned, one of the Minor Plaintiffs’ arguments is that section 4(a)(1)–(3) directly classifies on the basis of sex because it “uses explicitly sex-based terms to criminalize certain treatments based on a minor’s ‘sex.'” Of course, section 4(a)(1)–(3) discusses sex insofar as it generally addresses treatment for discordance between biological sex and gender identity, and insofar as it identifies the applicable cross-sex hormone(s) for each sex—estrogen for males and testosterone and other androgens for females. We nonetheless believe the statute does not discriminate based on sex for two reasons.

First, the statute does not establish an unequal regime for males and females. In the Supreme Court’s leading precedent on gender-based intermediate scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause, the Court held that heightened scrutiny applies to “official action that closes a door or denies opportunity to women (or to men).” Alabama’s law does not distinguish between men and women in such a way. Instead, section 4(a)(1)–(3) establishes a rule that applies equally to both sexes: it restricts the prescription and administration of puberty blockers and cross-sex hormone treatment for purposes of treating discordance between biological sex and sense of gender identity for all minors.

Second, the statute refers to sex only because the medical procedures that it regulates—puberty blockers and cross-sex hormones as a treatment for gender dysphoria—are themselves sexbased. The Act regulates medical interventions to treat an incongruence between one’s biological sex and one’s perception of one’s sex. The cross-sex hormone treatments for gender dysphoria are different for males and for females because of biological differences between males and females—females are given testosterone and males are given estrogen. With regards to puberty blockers, those medications inhibit and suppress the production of testosterone in males and estrogen in females. For that reason, it is difficult to imagine how a state might regulate the use of puberty blockers and cross-sex hormones for the relevant purposes in specific terms without referencing sex in some way….

The Minor Plaintiffs’ other sex-based argument is that section 4(a)(1)–(3) indirectly classifies on the basis of sex by classifying on the basis of gender nonconformity…. This is the position that the district court adopted, citing Bostock …. Bostock dealt with Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, in the context of employment discrimination…. [T]he Court in Bostock relied exclusively on the specific text of Title VII. The Court “proceed[ed] on the assumption that ‘sex’ refer[s] only to biological distinctions between male and female.” But the Court reasoned that the combined ordinary meaning of the words “because of,” “otherwise discriminate against,” and “individual” led to the conclusion that Title VII makes “[a]n individual’s homosexuality or transgender status … not relevant to employment decisions.”

The Equal Protection Clause contains none of the text that the Court interpreted in Bostock. It provides simply that “[n]o State shall … deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Because Bostock therefore concerned a different law (with materially different language) and a different factual context, it bears minimal relevance to the instant case….

To be sure, section 4(a)(1)–(3) restricts a specific course of medical treatment that, by the nature of things, only gender nonconforming individuals may receive. But just last year, the Supreme Court explained that “[t]he regulation of a medical procedure that only one sex can undergo does not trigger heightened constitutional scrutiny unless the regulation is a ‘mere pretex[t] designed to effect an invidious discrimination against members of one sex or the other.'” Dobbs. By the same token, the regulation of a course of treatment that only gender nonconforming individuals can undergo would not trigger heightened scrutiny unless the regulation were a pretext for invidious discrimination against such individuals. And the district court did not find that Alabama’s law was based on invidious discrimination.

We similarly reject the United States’ view that section 4(a)(1)–(3) is subject to heightened scrutiny because it classifies on the basis of transgender status, separate from sex. As we recently explained, “we have grave ‘doubt’ that transgender persons constitute a quasi-suspect class,” distinct from sex, under the Equal Protection Clause. Even if they did, for the reasons discussed with respect to gender nonconformity, section 4(a)(1)–(3)’s relationship to transgender status would not trigger heightened scrutiny. Chiefly, the regulation of a course of treatment that, by the nature of things, only transgender individuals would want to undergo would not trigger heightened scrutiny unless the regulation is a pretext for invidious discrimination against such individuals, and, here, the district court made no findings of such a pretext. For these reasons, we conclude that section 4(a)(1)–(3)’s relationship to transgender status does not warrant heightened scrutiny….

Judge Brasher concurred, elaborating further on why he thought the classification here wasn’t subject to heightened scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause, and would in any even pass such scrutiny.

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Expert Attorneys Share Their Top Strategies





Legal matters can often feel like navigating a complex and daunting maze. From personal injury cases to business disputes, having a knowledgeable guide can make all the difference. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve into the world of legal strategies and insights from expert attorneys. These professionals have seen it all and are ready to share their top strategies for success. Whether you’re facing a legal challenge or simply want to be prepared for the future, this article is your go-to resource.

Expert Strategies for Navigating the Legal Maze

Navigating the legal landscape requires a combination of expertise, careful planning, and a solid understanding of the law. Our team of expert attorneys has distilled their knowledge into actionable strategies that can help you make informed decisions. Here are their top recommendations:

Choosing the Right Attorney

Selecting the right attorney is paramount to your legal success. When seeking legal representation, consider the following:
Experience Matters: Look for an attorney with specific experience in your type of case.
Check Credentials: Ensure they are licensed and in good standing with the bar association.
Client Reviews: Read reviews and testimonials from previous clients to gauge their reputation.

Understanding Your Legal Needs

Before diving into any legal matter, take the time to fully understand your needs. This involves:
Assessment: Identify the key issues and objectives of your case.
Consultation: Schedule a consultation with an attorney to discuss your situation.
Budgeting: Determine your budget for legal fees and related expenses.

Negotiation Tactics

Many legal disputes can be resolved through negotiation rather than litigation. Expert attorneys suggest:
Effective Communication: Maintain open and honest communication with all parties involved.
Compromise: Be willing to make reasonable concessions to reach a settlement.
Legal Support: Seek mediation or arbitration when appropriate.

Document Preparation

Thorough and accurate documentation is crucial in legal matters. Pay attention to:
Document Organization: Keep all relevant paperwork organized and easily accessible.
Legal Advice: Consult with your attorney on the specific documents required for your case.
Accuracy: Ensure all information is factual and up to date.

Trial Preparation

If your case goes to trial, meticulous preparation is key to success:
Legal Strategy: Work closely with your attorney to develop a winning legal strategy.
Witnesses and Evidence: Identify and prepare witnesses and gather evidence.
Courtroom Etiquette: Familiarize yourself with courtroom procedures and etiquette.

Post-Case Evaluation

Even after your legal matter is resolved, there are important steps to take:
Review the Outcome: Assess the outcome and any lessons learned.
Preventative Measures: Implement strategies to avoid similar legal issues in the future.
Legal Updates: Stay informed about changes in the law that may affect you.


Q: How can I find the right attorney for my case?
A: Start by researching attorneys with expertise in your area of need. Consult with them to discuss your case and evaluate their compatibility.

Q: Is it always necessary to go to trial?
A: No, many legal disputes can be resolved through negotiation, mediation, or arbitration, avoiding the need for a trial.

Q: What should I bring to my first meeting with an attorney?
A: Bring any relevant documents, such as contracts, emails, or incident reports, to provide your attorney with a clear picture of your situation.

Q: How long does a legal case typically take to resolve?
A: The timeline varies depending on the complexity of the case. Some cases can be resolved in a matter of months, while others may take years.

Q: What should I do if I’m not satisfied with my attorney’s performance?
A: Discuss your concerns with your attorney first. If issues persist, you may consider seeking new legal representation.

Q: How can I stay updated on changes in the law that affect me?
A: Subscribe to legal newsletters, follow reputable legal websites, and consult with your attorney regularly for updates.


Navigating the legal maze may seem challenging, but with the guidance of expert attorneys and a solid understanding of legal strategies, you can confidently face any legal situation. Remember to choose the right attorney, understand your legal needs, and be prepared for negotiation or trial. By following these expert recommendations, you’ll be better equipped to navigate the complex world of the law.

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“From Courtroom Dramas to Legal Triumphs: Inside the World of Attorney Law”




From Courtroom Dramas to Legal Triumphs: Inside the World of Attorney Law

In today’s complex and ever-changing legal landscape, the role of attorneys has evolved significantly. From defending the accused in high-stakes courtroom dramas to negotiating legal triumphs that shape society, attorneys play a vital role in our justice system. In this article, we will delve deep into the fascinating world of attorney law, exploring the various facets and shedding light on what it truly means to be an attorney.

The Evolution of Attorney Law

Attorney law, often referred to as the legal profession, has a rich history that spans centuries. From its origins in ancient civilizations to its modern-day complexities, this field has undergone a remarkable transformation.

Ancient Origins of Legal Representation

In the annals of history, legal representation can be traced back to ancient civilizations such as Mesopotamia and Ancient Rome. These early legal practitioners laid the foundation for the legal profession we know today.

The Birth of Modern Attorney Law

The modern legal profession began to take shape in the Middle Ages, with the establishment of the first universities and the emergence of legal scholars. This period marked the transition from informal legal advisors to trained professionals.

The Contemporary Attorney

Today, attorneys are highly educated professionals who navigate a complex web of laws and regulations. They specialize in various fields, including criminal law, civil litigation, corporate law, and more.

A Day in the Life of an Attorney

Ever wondered what it’s like to be an attorney? Let’s take a glimpse into their daily routines and responsibilities.

Legal Research and Case Analysis

Attorneys spend a significant portion of their day conducting in-depth legal research and analyzing cases. This is the foundation upon which their legal strategies are built.

Client Consultations and Counseling

Attorneys meet with clients to understand their legal issues, provide guidance, and outline potential courses of action. Effective communication and empathy are essential skills in this aspect of their work.

Courtroom Advocacy

One of the most iconic aspects of an attorney’s job is their presence in the courtroom. They represent their clients, present evidence, and argue legal points before judges and juries.

Negotiations and Settlements

Not all legal matters end up in court. Attorneys often engage in negotiations and settlements, aiming to resolve disputes amicably and cost-effectively.

Specializations in Attorney Law

Attorney law is incredibly diverse, with attorneys specializing in various practice areas. Here are some of the most prominent ones:

Criminal Defense Attorneys

These attorneys defend individuals accused of crimes, ensuring their rights are protected and advocating for fair treatment under the law.

Corporate Lawyers

Corporate lawyers advise businesses on legal matters, including mergers, acquisitions, contracts, and compliance with regulations.

Family Law Attorneys

Family law attorneys handle cases related to divorce, child custody, adoption, and other family-related legal issues.

Environmental Lawyers

These attorneys focus on cases involving environmental regulations, pollution, and conservation efforts.

The Path to Becoming an Attorney

Becoming an attorney is a rigorous journey that requires dedication and perseverance. Here’s a step-by-step guide to the path of becoming a legal professional.

Undergraduate Education

Most aspiring attorneys begin their journey with a bachelor’s degree in a related field such as political science or pre-law.

Law School

Law school is a challenging phase where students delve into the intricacies of legal theory and practice. It typically takes three years to complete.

Bar Examination

After graduating from law school, aspiring attorneys must pass the bar examination in their jurisdiction to become licensed practitioners.

Ongoing Professional Development

Attorneys are lifelong learners, constantly staying updated on changes in the law through continuing legal education.


What is the role of an attorney in society?

Attorneys serve as advocates, advisors, and representatives for their clients, ensuring that their legal rights are protected and that justice is served.

How long does it take to become an attorney?

The path to becoming an attorney typically involves four years of undergraduate education, three years of law school, and passing the bar examination, totaling around seven years.

Can attorneys specialize in multiple areas of law?

Yes, attorneys can choose to specialize in multiple areas of law, allowing them to provide a broader range of legal services to their clients.

What are the key qualities of a successful attorney?

Successful attorneys possess strong analytical skills, excellent communication abilities, empathy, and a deep understanding of the law.

Do attorneys only work in courtrooms?

No, while attorneys do represent clients in court, a significant portion of their work involves legal research, client consultations, negotiations, and drafting legal documents.

How do attorneys stay updated on changes in the law?

Attorneys engage in ongoing professional development, including continuing legal education courses and staying informed about legislative changes.


“From Courtroom Dramas to Legal Triumphs: Inside the World of Attorney Law” offers a glimpse into the dynamic and multifaceted realm of attorney law. It is a field marked by its rich history, diverse specializations, and the unwavering commitment of legal professionals to uphold justice. Whether you aspire to become an attorney or simply want to understand the intricacies of this profession, this article has provided valuable insights into the fascinating world of attorney law.


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The Secrets: How Attorneys Are Changing the Game in Law





In an ever-changing legal landscape, attorneys have emerged as game-changers, reshaping the way we perceive and navigate the world of law. With their expertise, dedication, and innovative approaches, attorneys are breaking new ground and revolutionizing the practice of law. In this article, we will unveil the secrets behind how attorneys are changing the game in law, exploring the intricacies of their roles and the transformative impact they have on the legal realm.

Unveiling the Secrets: How Attorneys Are Changing the Game in Law

The legal profession, once steeped in tradition, has undergone a remarkable transformation. Attorneys, equipped with extensive legal knowledge and a commitment to justice, are at the forefront of this evolution. Let’s delve into the key aspects that highlight their pivotal role.

The Power of Legal Advocacy

Legal advocacy is at the heart of what attorneys do. They are not mere courtroom performers but individuals dedicated to upholding justice. Attorneys represent their clients’ interests, ensuring that every voice is heard and every right is protected. Through persuasive arguments, they influence decisions that shape the course of legal proceedings.

Navigating Complex Legal Frameworks

One of the secrets behind attorneys’ success is their ability to navigate intricate legal frameworks. Laws can be convoluted and subject to constant changes. Attorneys stay updated with these changes, providing clients with accurate advice and strategies tailored to their unique situations.

Mediators and Conflict Resolvers

Attorneys often serve as mediators, helping parties resolve disputes without going to trial. Their negotiation skills and in-depth understanding of the law enable them to find common ground and reach amicable solutions, saving time, money, and emotional distress.

Guardians of Rights

Attorneys are staunch guardians of individual rights. They ensure that no one’s rights are violated, regardless of the circumstances. This commitment to upholding the law strengthens the foundations of justice in society.

Embracing Technology

The legal field has witnessed a technological revolution, and attorneys are quick to embrace these advancements. From e-discovery tools to virtual courtrooms, attorneys leverage technology to streamline their work, making legal services more efficient and accessible.

Advocating for Social Change

Attorneys are not confined to courtrooms alone. They play a significant role in advocating for social change. They champion causes that align with justice and equality, working towards a fairer and more equitable society.

Ethical Compass

Ethics are paramount in the legal profession, and attorneys uphold the highest ethical standards. Their unwavering commitment to integrity ensures that justice is served transparently and without compromise.

Empowering Clients

Attorneys empower their clients with knowledge and options. They demystify complex legal jargon, enabling clients to make informed decisions about their cases. This empowerment fosters a sense of control and confidence.

Pro Bono Work

Many attorneys engage in pro bono work, providing legal services to those who cannot afford them. This selfless act reflects their dedication to justice and the well-being of their communities.

Balancing Advocacy and Neutrality

Attorneys must strike a delicate balance between advocating for their clients and maintaining neutrality. This equilibrium ensures a fair legal process and instills trust in the legal system.

Influencing Precedent

Landmark cases often set legal precedents, shaping future interpretations of the law. Attorneys who argue these cases play a pivotal role in influencing the direction of legal jurisprudence.

Legal Innovators

Attorneys are not just followers of the law; they are also legal innovators. They propose new legal strategies and challenge established norms, pushing the boundaries of what is possible in the legal realm.

Protecting the Vulnerable

Attorneys serve as protectors of the vulnerable in society, including children, the elderly, and those with limited resources. Their advocacy ensures that the most marginalized individuals receive the legal support they need.

Adapting to Changing Circumstances

The legal landscape is dynamic, and attorneys excel at adapting to changing circumstances. Whether it’s a shift in legislation or a global crisis, attorneys remain resilient and resourceful.

International Reach

Attorneys today have a global reach. They navigate international laws and treaties, providing clients with insights into the complexities of cross-border legal matters.

Bridging the Justice Gap

Attorneys play a vital role in bridging the justice gap. They strive to make legal services more accessible to all, irrespective of their socio-economic backgrounds.

Ensuring Due Process

Due process is the cornerstone of justice, and attorneys ensure that it is upheld in every legal proceeding. They work diligently to prevent miscarriages of justice.

Educators and Mentors

Attorneys pass on their knowledge and expertise to the next generation. Many serve as educators and mentors, shaping the future of the legal profession.

Legal Research Pioneers

In the age of information, attorneys are pioneers of legal research. They utilize vast databases and digital resources to build strong cases and defend their clients effectively.

Diverse Specializations

Attorneys specialize in diverse fields, from environmental law to intellectual property. This specialization allows them to provide specialized, in-depth counsel to clients.

The Role of Precedent

Precedent is a crucial element in legal decision-making. Attorneys study past cases to build persuasive arguments and navigate legal complexities.

Upholding Democracy

Attorneys play a pivotal role in upholding democracy. They ensure that the principles of justice and fairness are upheld in government and political processes.

A Voice for the Voiceless

Attorneys often represent individuals and groups who lack a voice in the legal system. They amplify the concerns of marginalized communities.

Striving for Equity

Attorneys advocate for equity in all aspects of life, from the workplace to the courtroom. Their efforts contribute to a more just society.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the role of attorneys in shaping legal precedent?

Attorneys play a crucial role in shaping legal precedent by arguing landmark cases and influencing how the law is interpreted. Their persuasive skills and legal expertise are instrumental in setting new standards.

How do attorneys adapt to changes in the legal landscape?

Attorneys adapt to changes in the legal landscape by staying informed about legislative developments, embracing technology, and continuously improving their skills. This adaptability ensures they remain effective in their roles.

Can attorneys really make a difference in advocating for social change?

Yes, attorneys can make a significant difference in advocating for social change. They use their legal knowledge to challenge unjust laws, fight for civil rights, and promote social justice causes.

What is the significance of attorneys offering pro bono services?

Attorneys offering pro bono services provide legal representation to individuals who cannot afford it. This ensures that justice is accessible to all, regardless of financial means.

How do attorneys balance advocacy and neutrality in legal proceedings?

Attorneys balance advocacy and neutrality by upholding their ethical duty to represent their clients’ interests vigorously while also respecting the principles of fairness and justice in legal proceedings.

What is the impact of attorneys on international legal matters?

Attorneys have a significant impact on international legal matters by navigating complex international laws and treaties

, representing clients in cross-border disputes, and contributing to global legal discussions.


Attorneys are the unsung heroes of the legal world, tirelessly working to uphold justice, protect rights, and shape the future of the legal profession. Their influence extends far beyond courtrooms, touching every aspect of society. As we unveil the secrets of how attorneys are changing the game in law, we gain a deeper appreciation for their indispensable role in our lives.

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